Objects in focus: Rayleigh Castle and the de Essex family

Museum Officer Ross Dandridge explores the rich history of Rayleigh Castle, an impressive castle once situated on Rayleigh Mount. He details a history filled with battles, conquests and royal favours. You can see the artefacts from Rayleigh Castle at Central Museum. 

Rayleigh Castle

At Central Museum we have on display fascinating artefacts dating from the 12th and 13th century. These objects come from a local castle, the very existence of which will come as a surprise to many. For while Rayleigh Mount is today a haven for dog-walkers and bird-watchers, history enthusiasts looking for remnants of the castle buildings that once stood there will leave disappointed. The Museum’s collection, however, with its imposing wooden gatepost and fearsome collection of arrowheads and crossbow bolts, reminds us that the innocuous slopes of the Mount were in fact the earthworks of this remarkable stronghold, which grew and declined in response to the upheavals of Norman and Plantagenet England. Equally the cooking pot, flute and charming miniature dog – perhaps a medieval children’s toy – testify to the community of people who lived and worked here over the course of almost three hundred years of habitation.

 

Rayleigh castle artefacts

Artefacts from Rayleigh Castle in Central Museum’s collection

Origins

Rayleigh Castle was founded around 1070 by Sweyn, son of Robert FitzWimarc, a Breton favourite of Edward Confessor. Robert had managed to remain in favour after the Conquest, despite having warned William of Normandy that his men ‘will prove of no more account than a pack of curs’ against Harold Godwinson’s army, and Sweyn was authorised to build one of the flurry of castles intended to secure the new regime. His choice of location was a considered one; though nothing more than a small knoll, it offered a commanding view of the Crouch Valley, and was located at the tip of a spur jutting out from – and outside bowshot of – the line of hills on which Rayleigh is built. Once he had sealed this off with a timber wall and ditch, using the soil extracted to build up the existing mound, Sweyn was left with a superbly defensible position. This he topped with a timber-framed building surrounded by a palisade, creating a classic Norman “motte”.

 

Rayleigh mount.png

View from Rayleigh Mount, facing West

Henry de Essex

Sweyn died around 1087, the castle passing to his son Robert, who in a sign of the family’s standing within the county assumed the surname “de Essex”. He was responsible for the family’s most enduring legacy, with the foundation of Prittlewell Priory in 1110, but played little role in national affairs. His son Henry proved more ambitious, and by 1152 had acquired the office of Constable of England, placing him in regular attendance upon King Henry II. This left him little time to spend at Rayleigh, but he nonetheless seems to have invested heavily in his baronial headquarters, considerable expansion and reinforcement of which can be dated to this period.

By the mid-1130s an area of ground to the south-east of the motte had been enclosed behind a palisade and then, together with the motte, by a ditch; the castle had thus developed into the “motte and bailey” layout characteristic of castles across northern Europe during the 10th-13th centuries. The bailey would have housed the castle’s soldiery and supporting workforce, including kitchens and a smithy. Around this time the motte was also raised to at least its present height and its slopes lined with a mixture of stone and fragments of Roman tile, while at some point a second ‘outer bailey’ was also added, further to the south-east.

Motte-Bailey

An artists impression of a motte and bailey castle#

Henry thus brought the de Essex family and its castle to the height of their prominence, but his spectacular fall then condemned both to obscurity. After the Battle of Ewloe in 1157, where the English army was crushed by a much smaller Welsh force, Henry was accused of having abandoned the Royal Standard and fled the battlefield, wrongly proclaiming the King’s death. The accusation was probably bogus, being levelled by Robert de Montfort, a resentful magnate whose family had previously held titles now bestowed upon Henry; the King clearly put little stock in it, allowing Henry to retain his position for several years. But De Montfort was determined to force the issue, bringing it to trial before the King in 1163. At this point Henry II decided to allow his feuding magnates to settle matters between themselves through trial by combat, from which De Montfort emerged victorious. Henry de Essex survived but had his castle confiscated by the crown, living out his final years as a monk of Reading Abbey.

Later History

The castle was later granted by King John to Hubert de Burgh, who built his new castle at Hadleigh on land acquired as part of the Honour of Rayleigh. Development nevertheless continued at Rayleigh itself, the surface of the bailey being raised during the late 13th or early 14th century and several new buildings erected, perhaps to house stores for the nearby royal horse-stud. By the mid-14th century, however, the castle appears to have been deserted, and in 1394 Richard II invited his tenants at Rayleigh to quarry stone from ‘the foundations of a certain old castle that used to be in that town’. Clearly by then the castle was already fading from the mighty stronghold it had been under the de Essex family into the peaceful greenery of today’s Mount.

To discover more about Rayleigh Castle and explore more exciting items, visit Central Museum. Open 10am-5pm Tuesday- Saturday.

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